Is Smart Exchange Really a Smart Idea?
Alamode recently launched Smart Exchange to its users. The idea is appraisers can see what others have stated as property characteristics and transfer that information directly into your report. The system is based on mutual sharing, so if you participate, you will share all your comparable data with everyone else that is using Smart Exchange and you can see their data.
The last update from alamode installed the programming and changed the way the side by side screen looks. Now I must make a disclaimer here, I am in the over 50 category and my kids are all grown. It has been a very long time since I looked at such obnoxious bright colors; colors typically associate with the primary colors we learn in kindergarten. There does not seem to be a way to change the colors. I realize the twenty somethings are much more tech savvy than I and I would not even attempt to write a computer program, but seriously, how could alamode be so disrespectful to their customers? Is this not degrading to the licensed professionals that we are? What was alamode thinking?
So how exactly does Smart Exchange benefit appraisers? According to their announcement:
Alamode states it will save time on every report. I personally do not see how it will. Even if the data is automatically input into my report, I still have to verify it to comply with USPAP. From prior experience, when I transfer data from other sources, it actually creates more errors in my report. You see, I get interrupted frequently, and when I get back to the report, I don’t always remember where I left off. Either I’ve already verified information or I miss a line item and the report goes out with incorrect information. This is where revision requests cost me time and money. I would rather obtain and verify my own information and explain any differences up front. This is what independent appraisers are supposed to do, right? Paying a third party to transfer someone else’s data in to my report so it will cost me more time and money later, is not efficient in my mind.
Alamode states it is powerful data for better analysis. It allows valuable insights on how other appraisers have submitted property characteristics. I could care less what others rate a property. I am an independent appraiser and must perform my own analysis, opinions and conclusions. Not only does USPAP require this, I am certifying this (#16 on the 1004) in the report.
Alamode states it is compliant data sharing. Only comparable data is shared, so there is no USPAP issue. Well weren’t each of those comparable properties a subject? I don’t understand how this is not an issue. Quality and condition ratings are subjective opinions. Fannie Mae thinks they are absolutes, but we all know they are subjective and the quality and condition ratings are the opinion of the appraiser. It simply is not possible to be anything but a subjective opinion.
At the end of the day, I do not see any real benefit to Smart Exchange program. I have to question why any independent appraiser would use this and be willing to share their research and conclusions. Isn’t this like giving away trade secrets? Don’t our research, data, analysis and quality of our reports set us apart? Why would any appraiser want to give away what they have worked to develop over the years?
Now take this one step further, alamode wants to charge appraisers for sharing data. How insulting is that? It is our data we are sharing. Who gets the money? The appraiser whose data we use? Or alamode?
As you can tell, I am not a fan of this program until someone convinces me otherwise. Please share your opinions on Smart Exchange below and leave any additional comments in the comment section below. Once you’ve completed the survey, the results below will be updated.
By Advocate, Certified Real Estate Appraiser – author requested to remain anonymous
Most of the data in the grid is a derivative result of the appraiser’s opinion of utility/compliance with the market of those grid items. They are therefore assignment results and confidential. The sharing of confidential results with someone other than the client is a breach of the ethics rule. CoreLogic isn’t USPAP bound, but are actively encouraging appraisers to breach USPAP with this product.
You better verify the data and come to your own conclusion, by the time you do that you are better off entering your own data
EXACTLY! Am I going to trust someone elses information? HELL NO! So what’s the point of this other than CL making more money off the appraisers back.
This article states that if you participate that your data will be shared with others. How about the appraisers who are not participating is their data being shared?
Pretty certain that they would not have had any data to start with if they did not use data from everyone using alamode for all these years.
Here is what the alamode website says
What if I decide to opt out?
Once again the CoreLogic monopoly trying to control every aspect of our industry. Our reports are specifically made with an “intended use/user”. I can’t recall making them the intended use/user EVER!
And no way.
And I’m not even that old.
At $1.00 per comp, That’s a lot of money across the country !!
Why are Hybrids around…caused No one Trusts an AVM anymore with the lack of sales, so they need our signatures !!! When we share our comps, they can run better AVM’s…..hmmmmm and we actually pay them to give them data…..LMAO
Just NO!!! Everybody wants to use “our” data to make money.
I liked very much the old system where if you have used the comp before, it shows you the grid components that were used so you can compare your own indication of quality and condition. I fall into that old range (older) and may very well see differences at one time I did not see another time. If the report was done more than a week ago I can’t recall what quality / condition I used before. I want that system back. I don’t care what other appraisers thought of the subject, only what I thought of the comps previously used.
One word to steer clear of “CoreLogic”!
Turn and run the other way.
Core Logic can look directly at all the files inside your appraisal desktop and extract any information or data they want.
When you download their mobile apps they can track your EXACT whereabouts and what websites you visit.
They know what appraisal fees you charge. They know know when you’re slow or when you’re busy.
Whats coming next?… Type the subject property address and the ENTIRE appraisal report will be filled out…with property information COPIED from a previous appraisal report.
Why do we need to keep taking continuing education if these reports fill themselves out & they all claim they are USPAP compliant? CE seems like a waste of time.
Nope ! Not doing it
Personally, I think they should be paying us to participate and use our data. Before Alamode was purchased by Corelogic, I was in favor of smart exchange. Now, I do not trust Alamode or Corelogic and have no intention of participating. It really doesn’t save much time as you would need to go through and verify the data in any case. Might as well just import the comps from MLS. I would really love to ditch Alamode, but I have to admit the Titan online platform is appealing to me.
the only thing they do not yet (openly and officially) own is our data…
until we PAY them to take it, and keep it, and SELL it to other people.
I’m not sharing!
This is all about sharing data with CoreLogic, not other appraisers in my opinion.
Very cute Dog in your photo!
That’s my baby Noble. He’s a reverse brindle boxer. Thank you!
These tech focused companies no longer pander to appraisers as consumers of their product, the backbone of their products reason for existence. Rather, they simply monetize our participation and our data for their own benefit, allowing the most irresponsible appraisers amongst the group to capture the lions share for far less effort, and far greater risk to consumers. Technocrats run this industry now and they want nothing more than to turn appraisers into dime a dozen regular employees while they capture the majority of operational income for themselves instead.
They’re not the only one. A new player on the scene, and they do not conceal the fact they store appraisal data for instant reference at a later date.
That’s an edr dot net website.
https://edrnet.com/prods/site-inspections-quick-trak/ Meet your new drive by inspectors.
They’re going to need them, as EDR.net partnered with Clear Capitol.
Meet the new faces of mortgage fraud in America.
The alamode betrayal is not even the half of it.
CAUTION folks, I clicked some of the links at the referenced EDR sites and largely have to concur with at least two areas: Commercial Appraisal Reviewing Criteria; and Appraising Contaminated Properties (AI Guide Note 6).
I’m not a fan of Clear Capital by any means, but I urge caution in critiquing some of their better postings with a one size fits all conclusion. Also a very good idea to read a few of the linked articles on their site to see where appraisal may be headed and who is leading the charge.
Looks like corealamode posted this video in response to this article
Let’s not forget why Corelogic bought alamode. Per their FAQ
Question: Why did CoreLogic buy a la mode?
Answer: CoreLogic is a leading provider of technology, analytics and services in the Valuation space. Our commitment to appraisers plus our current products and future ones like Titan Reports and SmartExchange were driving forces behind this transaction.
We should do all we can to keep Corelogic from getting our data.
In order of the webcast presentation above:
1. USPAP Compliance Is still unclear. IF the grid also shows adjustments relative to a specific subject property then I’d contend the data IS assignment specific. If it is absent all adjustments, then he’s probably right. As long as sale comments are not also pulled and provided that may reveal private non public information about an original subject property. Let’s consider that it MAY be USPAP compliant or that it could be made to be….after all the data is now part of a giant database, whether we wanted that or not.
2. Seems to be a sophist evasion of the real concern. He talks about affiliates (you and I) having limited access and use. He does NOT deny that OUR inputted data will possibly be used for other undisclosed purposes by ALM, such as data mining to build AVMS to put us out of business. We ARE giving them a worldwide right of unlimited use.
Remember, another service provider that once claimed appraiser data was secure and protected? (FNC and class action suit where the Courts flat out stated FNC STOLE data to compete with appraisers. Please note that Joel specifically states that some of the data in SmartExchange is FROM FNC Databases!* in follow on ‘lessons’ using link above).
Sooooo, we are all supposed to sign on to a service that acknowledges that FNC data (STOLEN per Appellate Court) is STILL being used in THIS program? I know. Just TRUST CoreLogic not to use our data here in some other AVM application designed to steal business from appraisers.
3. Knowing that other appraisers got a comps data wrong COULD help me IF I want to play the game of explaining WHY my data is correct vs some unknown “peer” appraisers data that wasn’t going to be reflected in my own report absent the noted exception!
THAT puts me in the direct position of having to criticize (or as some would call it “review”) a portion of the work product of another appraiser. Granted I don’t know who they are…but FNMA does!
So FNMA ‘reads’ my data as being substantively different than a so called ‘peer’. They (for arguments sake) accept mine as being correct because I thoroughly explained it in such a way as to confirm no other option is possible. NOW they write the original appraiser and advise HIM that a “review’ of his comparable analysis of a property he or she used as a comparable was seriously flawed.
BE AWARE that FNMA makes ALL the database information available to a state when they conduct an investigation. From the SSR to the error or exception messages in CU to ALL versions and revisions of a report. It’s not too big a stretch to think they could also receive copies of your non uspap compliant ‘review’ contained in your original report as justification for YOUR conclusions.
I’m paranoid you think? Perhaps. It’s the kind of paranoia associated with having a $145,000+ legal bill to prove innocence in spurious false state regulator allegations – also arising from an assignment that was not intended primarily as a technical review.
Personally, I do not trust the program. BTW – whether you opt in to the program or not, Joel says the address function WILL search your own desktop software database to see if you’ve used a comp before. Yet ANOTHER intrusion! IF they can do that already, then it also stands to reason that they can search the same databases WITHOUT telling us or showing us in a report, for their own ‘other’ undisclosed purposes!
Can anyone clarify if USPAP requires adjustments. If there is lack of sales for support of adjustments can appraiser present sales which bracket subject features and opinion of value as well as extensive narrative discussion and reasoning.
Any help appreciated.
USPAP does not require adjustments. It merely states you have to support them if you apply them. I use qualitative analysis in my reports all the time, Just explain what you are doing and why. I have never had any issue or kick back.
Hi active. Sometimes the simple points can be complicated. The standard is credible valuation results. The question is illogical because the ethics book merely provides the framework for ‘professional services’ with the agreed upon standards between the appraiser and the client, per the scope of work and engagement terms. For most when doing mortgage lending work, the solution is simply to turn to the fnma selling guide, follow the instructions in their parameters. (Control F in large pdf documents, a very helpful hotkey). Outside of predefined categorical work like irs, va, fnma, hud, freddie, cdot, etc, the appraiser is also tasked with forming their own sow to achieve ‘credible valuation results’, per the ‘peer standard’, but also the appraiser may alter sow at any given time if that is necessary for credible results. If the client would not agree to alteration of sow then that would be ‘unacceptable assignment conditions’. Both the appraiser and client must agree to the scope of work but ultimately the burden of sow both inside and outside of predefined guidance always falls on the appraiser since it is the appraisers duty to provide credible valuation results and they can not allow a clients bias or specific interest to interfere with credible results.
To adjust or not to adjust? Market response. Relative valuation via the principles of substitution. Reasonably credible assignment results. So you apply a sensible allotment of distributed adjustments from the valuation margin difference. Regression has its downside, because it gets complicated to adjust for minor variables when the whole enchilada is already tied up in ppsf analysis.
If dealing with unique or difficult to measure and compare items or features, subjective interpretation as to expected or likely market reaction is appropriate and may be necessary. Art not a science, tie it all up nicely with attention to the likely ‘buyers acceptance’ of said features. Over improvements happen, they can’t be comped, they still do have value.
I dealt with an owned solar system and gave it across the board +20k. Everyone else was leased. Could not match it, pair, extract, etc. So I had credited 2/3rds of it’s actual cash cost, that’s fair, they probably had a rebate, it had some depreciation. If it was an older system I may have only gave it 1/2 of it’s estimated cost new. If an item is real property, it has a cost you can measure from labor or sourcing avenues. The defense for the adjustment does not necessarily have to be extracted from the sales market data. If I wanted that in my house, how much cash would I have to shell out? So when dealing with unique, try to audit and quiz and get information how much they paid. One of my most important questions is how much cash have you put into these improvements? It’s important to have a solid understanding of cost to procure vs just value in market. Hope that helps.
Here is the information off of Alamode’s website on how to opt out.
What if I decide to opt out?
Thanks for posting this.
And that’s why I’m still on Aurora. Good tech is simple tech. Complicated tech rarely provides benefit to regular workers and is more likely to be a clever play to monetize what used to be an incorporated aspect of the product or service. Rule of thumb, do not upgrade if you do not have to.
Even if you opt out, they acknowledge they will still have access to your own database to the extent that they can tell (& warn you) that you have used a specific comp before). Listen to linked webcast above and then click follow up webcast (2 or 3 minutes).
Interesting results of the survey. It appears an overwhelming majority have the same thoughts as me. Nothing against Joel, but not sure the video put out by alamode really spells out a true benefit.
After watching & listening to that video it confirms there is NO WAY I would ever utilize SmartExchange.
It’s more Technocapitalism running amok.
Here is another problem and/or question facing alamode.
The video mentions the concerns that have been observed all over social media from appraisers.
Does that imply we are all liars or stupid or misinformed or ignorant or not educated or what?
History suggests that the many (in this case appraisers) are more often correct than the few or one (in this case alamode).
So…….are all these appraisers with all these concerns just simply wrong?
Personally, I object to the forced update….. it should be optional for those that want to participate.
Furthermore, I don’t trust that Corelogic isn’t spreading around my appraisal data without my consent (which I consider assignment results regardless whether it’s a comparable or not… I evaluated it… the conclusions are MINE).
This is just the hundredth or so reason I will NOT be renewing my license when it expires…. I’m **definitely** switching to different appraisal software provider. This is BS….
I think this is a great system; I am just wary of it being run by Corelogic. But I don’t understand all the general hate and animosity from appraisers about “sharing data”. Come on, you would love it if it wasn’t a big bad AMC like Corelogic running it. We have had a local data sharing service like this for years (decades?) and the technology hasn’t caught up to the times but it is very valuable and almost every residential appraiser participates in it. Would you rather have inaccurate MLS or courthouse data on an improvement size, or an actual appraiser’s measurement?
Is data coming from the MLS great, but coming from another appraiser is evil and bad? LOL sometimes appraisers are so emotional! I am all for a process which facilitates the end result — getting to a credible opinion of value. This seems to do so. Will Corelogic harm appraisers in the long run? Perhaps, but AMCs are already doing that; at least this is giving us something positive at the same time. Appraisal in the long run is going to be far, far different than it is today. Perhaps it will even go away entirely. But I question the validity of this poll– really 90% of appraisers are offended by bad colors???? ba ha ha
Paul, If the data differs in the database from MLS and Tax, how do you verify it as being accurate? What are you stating is the source and verification of the data on the 1004? What support will you have if you and your report are in front of a state investigation? You don’t even know the name of the appraiser whose data you are using. In concept, I think this idea is great. I just do not see it as a benefit to ensures a quality report. Could you please elaborate on how your group is doing this?
“at least this is giving us something positive at the same time.”
Reminder: They are not “giving us anything” they expect us to pay for it!
I would be for a data sharing protocol among other appraisers, but why should I pay so that Corelogic can use my data. Not happening.
Juliana, If your are required to participate & then being charged for that participation, it’s a scam.
using other data is exactly the same as trusting a min wage (or less) inspector to provide your subject info for a hybrid.
If you are trusting someone else for your comparable data and/or utilizing it – how do you identify that in the report?
Whose name or data source do you put down as a source of data?
do you disclose that on every page, in the supp, at all? (I sure hope you disclose)
If you are doubting the automated results of a poll, how are you trusting data CL says is from another appraiser? Is it from an appraiser or from a trainee?
Is that data from a report that is under review for failure?
Is that data from an appraiser who is no longer licensed?
Again – you are PAYING CL to GIVE them your data so they can SELL it to another person.
Can I work for you? You could pay me to create a report that I sell to someone else. Now that’s a reasonable and customary fee.
Taking wagers now; Will Alamode allow hybrid reports to also utilize the sharing program, allowing cross over data both ways? I’d bet appraisers did not think they’d be sharing with hybrid producers…
Why would they not? They create the forms their masters at CorelaMode dictate. Better yet, they can create platforms that only appraisers that do these things will ever see.
Most hybrids favor cloud computing using online software. What better way to keep the public from knowing how bad they are? Just hide them all.
we verify and use county data for all comps used and notice that the exchange peer comps are not county verified, so the exchange system is not going to work
In part, the issue with data is that there IS a difference between what the original appraiser sees (personal inspection), and identifies, versus what is shown or described by a listing agent/public record files. The report I’m currently working on has a comp that reflects my peers have used it 3 times, and I have used it 1 time. As I was the original appraiser for the purchase, my report correctly identified the true characteristics of the property (MLS/Public Record Files in error / GLA, bedroom, bathroom, 1,225 sf basement, etc.), where as all 3 of my peers have incorrectly used what was and is still listed as the characteristics in the MLS. With no system in place to force the MLS listing to be modified to reflect the appraisal findings, or a standard to require public records be updated, my peers will continually use the information that is publicly available (MLS/Public records) while the UAD flags ME for having the variance from my peers. The system will encourage using the majority opinion (safe), while discouraging required independent thinking.
Seek the truth.
Stop using logic!
Systemic data inconsistency with inadequate data resolution, revision, and fail-safe mechanisms. Brought to you by FNMA and Alamode!
Well, Boys & Girls, here I go again.
Smart Exchange (SE) is just another rung in the downward spiral of the Appraisal Profession.
Corelogic is “mining our data”, no matter how reliable it is & offering us the “opertunity” to purchase their mined data. How reliable is this data? I have had value protests wherein the “evidence submitted” was an AVM, where there were “COMPS”, that according to the public record, had not transferred in the prior 3 years, so these comps were the Subject in an appraisal of a Refi, Estate, Pre-Foreclosure, etc & not Arm’s Length Transactions. Is this going to happen with SE, where they pick up the Subject as a sale, but in reality it was not a sale?
Last month we were offered the “great time saver” from a tech company to obtain photos of the comps for only $5 each, with same day service. Where were these photos coming from? Probably MLS photos.
Now, Corelogic (CL) is offering this time saving opportunity to purchase comp data! My question, can we really rely on this information, i.e., has the participating Appraiser performed his/her due diligence in researching each comp & has CL verified the information that has been mined? I very seriously doubt that this factor can be “Certified” to meet the Certifications we sign in the Form 1004.
There are numerous other tech companies, including CL/Alamode that offer regression analysis, adjustment analysis, etc/etc to save us time & “make your report more credible”. These are all well & good & supply charts & graphs to include in the delivered report. However, they are only as good as the data entered & who has to enter this data & is responsible for the results. If you are not performing these tasks yourself, can you stand beside and/or prove the results? If not, pray that you never get called before your State Board or sued by the Lender/Client or even an unintended user.
While use of these 3rd party data providers may or may not be a violation of USPAP, it will require “disclosure” of where your data/analysis was obtained, i.e. XYZ service or whether or not you performed these actions on your own. Non-Disclosure of these facts is a violation of USPAP, i.e. not disclosing “Significant Assistance” in the research/analysis/development/delivery of the report.
For the people that have elected to participate in SE & are utilizing this data, I hope that your are also re-verifying the “Comps” as well as, MLS print outs, the sales history from available public data & have proof of same in your work file.
For all “Professional Appraisers”, I recommend that you not participate in SE & it will soon die out as no new/relevant Comps will be added to CLs data base & will then be no more reliable/relevant than the old AVMs.
I have been performing appraisals assignments since 1973 & have experienced numerous/significant improvements in the Profession, including technological advances that have been “improvements” to our Profession, however, the recent “Technological Advances” appear to be more pointed towards eliminating the human/boots on the ground/common sense that should also be a component of an appraisal assignment.
Favorite third party solicitation line to appraisers; Stop wasting your time with data entry, typing, and comparable selection, and get back to doing what you love to do, appraising!
Or some other similar nonsense from the peanut gallery of appraisal related third party service providers…
Participate in plagiarization today by calling 1-800-appraisal typing and data sharing services. You’ll save a lot of time and earn more money!
with it’s treasure trove of INSIDER data……
only a matter of time before Core Logic gets hacked….
Kinda wonder if they would even tell anyone
if they did get hacked.
WE ARE NOW ALL EXPOSED TO THIS RISK.
NO OFFENSE, but remember, it’s better to be PISSED OFF than PISSED ON. My recommendation is to not participate in SE.
Um…….. Yeah, that happened in 08/2017, an unknown amount of personally identifiable information stolen from corelogic credco systems.
That would be pdf page 134; Credco learned that between July 21, 2017 and August 7, 2017 an individual obtained access to Credco’s system to obtain your consumer information without proper authorization. Such information includes your name and address and one or more of the following: Social Security Number, date of birth and account numbers.
Per Corelogic Credco services: For over 50 years, CoreLogic has been offering credit reporting solutions to the mortgage industry. Today, we are the largest provider of merged credit reports in the United States – supplying information to 19 of the top 20 mortgage lenders.
Identity Theft Resource Senter – Data Breach Reports 2017
You don’t want to really know how insecure the online community really is. “It’s only a matter of time before they get hacked….” Sorry to tell you, pick your favorite companies name, they have already been hacked, and the hack is ongoing daily to infinity. Welcome to the global stage… Still loving paperless and managing all that sensitive information from a mobile phone? Like ducks, the American consumers who were easy to sell tech, but know nothing about the tech they are using, stepped right into the bullseye.
The more you know…
List of data breaches
Sharing data? That’s not as bright of an idea as people think it is.
My annual salary is $5,284,199
Your I.Q. appears to be under 100 to make a comment like that. Too afraid to state your name?? I am sure you are not actually the CEO but, my dislike for bottom feeders like Core-illogic is so strong that just imagining you are the actual CEO is reason enough to comment. Feels good.
Gadda I’m pretty sure CEOs pseudonym post was sarcasm. It show cases what we are up against. A megalopoly that generates annual revenue/sales of 1.5 BILLION dollars. (I sometimes jump out a bit too fast too. Give it a re-read and I think you’ll see the gallows humor in it – enjoy!)
I can’t earn either of those numbers even if I work overtime on weekends.
“Every one that is proud in heart is an abomination to God; Though hand join in hand, he shall not be unpunished.”
Proverbs 16:5 ASV
Did anyone else notice the massive slowdown in the program with the update that installed SmartExchange? I noticed a slow down right after CoreLogic bought alamode and now it is worse. And the error messages when saving a report?
I just know there is something going on in the background they’re not telling us.
If it’s anything like Corelogic MLS systems, you can expect to be beta testing a product which never really reaches a finished state. Tech guys will tinker with it to infinity like unsupervised workers whom have to show they’ve done something monthly in order to retain their jobs. They will create problems. Then they will fix problems. Welcome to big tech!
Glad I’m still on Aurora. It’s never too late to turn back to a more simple platform.
Background process drain is a big deal, you should know where your resources are going. Usually you’ll find simple solutions with relatively simple investigative effort and quick google tech solution research. First step is identifying what’s causing the drain.
As long as they’re not cryptojacking alamode users processing power to also mine bitcoin…
Welcome to the world of big tech!
Control+alt+delete / View option; select columns (make sure; user name, cpu usage, memory private working set, command line, and description, are all checked at a minimum) / then
Processes tab / show processes from all users (on bottom) / click the top bar and toggle between cpu and memory, see what’s draining and where. Troubleshoot as necessary. Click networking tab in period of excess slowdown to see if you’re dealing with network resource redirect issues or network limited availability due to shared, etc.
Cryptojacking – What is it, and how can you prevent it?
Cryptojacking, things you should know about in 2018. If you don’t have malwarebytes paid subscription, get one right away.
So they want to take our data (the appraisers) and sell it back to us (the appraisers)?
Can they kick me in my hind quarters too.
The bigger picture is that the data will allow them to sell other services including “AVM” type products that eliminate the appraiser all together. Data is the 4th industrial revolution. If you’re an Appraiser and are planning on staying in the business you should protect your data at all costs.
I’d be interested to see updated survey results for all these polls. 2 and a half years have gone by and lots has changed since then. I just came across this article when I was looking into Smart Exchange more. In my opinion, it’s a great feature to have for double-checking your work. I would never rely on it for importing comp data directly, and I don’t personally pay into it, but you can still see all the peer comp data without paying and it’s very helpful. Seeing other appraiser’s opinions on the comps and how they compare to your own comes in handy and is sometimes a reality check you might need. In my market, every comp seems to have at least 5-20 peer shared comps so the data is plentiful.